Interaction: 'Samhandling' Under Risk: A Step Ahead of the Unforeseen

Volume editor:
Glenn-Egil Torgersen
Chapter authors:
Johan Bergh, Brita Bjørkelo, Ole Boe, Tone Cecilie Carlsten, Eric Carlström, Irmelin Drake, Odin Fauskevåg, Kristian Firing, Pål Kristian Fredriksen, Gila Hammer Furnes, Kjersti Halvorsen, Berit Kristin Haugdal, Marius Herberg, Tormod Heier, Jan O. Jacobsen, Hitoshi Kawano, Tommy Krabberød, Tore Listou, Leif Inge Magnussen, Raino Malnes, Ingrid Nyhus, Olav Kjellevold Olsen, Ann Christin Rivenes, Torbjørn Rundmo, Herner Saeverot, Per Øystein Saksvik, Trygve Steiro, Marianne Storm, Glenn-Egil Torgersen, Carl Cato Wadel, Tobias Werler, Siri Wiig


The authors of Interaction: ‘Samhandling’ Under Risk. A Step Ahead of the Unforeseen elucidate new views on emergency-preparedness management and understanding the unforeseen in society and learning processes by introducing the concept of ‘samhandling’, a Norwegian term that connotes interaction, collaboration and cooperation in one word. What are the basic structures of the concept of ‘samhandling’ under risk? How can ‘samhandling’ be created when conditions are unpredictable? These questions served as the springboard for 28 research studies, the results of which are now presented in this anthology, organized in four parts: Educational, Organizational, Operational Samhandling Structures and Theory Construction and The Way Forward. The book conveys new knowledge that forms the basis for a new view on strategic, emergency-preparedness management, and understanding of the unforeseen in society and in learning processes. The approach is interdisciplinary but has a particular focus on disciplines such as pedagogy, psychology, military science, health sciences, and organization and management, applied in various industries and sectors related to practical examples, experiences and challenges. The book’s primary target group is the scientific research communities within these disciplines.


Author Biographies

Johan Bergh

Johan Bergh is Commander Senior Grade (CDR SG) in the Royal Norwegian Navy. He currently holds the position of Project Manager for “The Digital Age for the Norwegian Defence University College (NDUC)”. Commander Bergh has held positions as Head of Military Leadership Section and Head of Department for Military Leadership and Management. He has worked in HR, leadership and restructuring for several years. Relevant publications include “A Strategic HR Process Model” (2005), an article on trust in military leadership (2017), and a book chapter on the same topic. Bergh has been keynote speaker at WARMCAMP (an acronym for Workshop and Roving Mezzanine Conference of Applied Military Psychology) and has contributed to articles about military leadership. Bergh is currently working on articles about situational awareness, digitalization and learning in Norwegian higher military education.

Brita Bjørkelo

Brita Bjørkelo, PhD, is a clinical psychologist and professor, and teaches in the Leadership and Management Programs, Norwegian Police University College. She is involved in investigations on ethical, grey-area police cases, ethical dilemmas among Senior Investigative Officers (SIOs) and is also involved in several research projects on whistleblowing. Bjørkelo is currently participating in the following projects: “Diversity in Police Education and Organization” and “Gender Representation in Top Positions in Academia”. In addition, Bjørkelo is heading a project on “Teacher Education, Ethics and Social Media”.

Ole Boe

Ole Boe, PhD, served as Associate Professor in Leadership and Leadership Development at the Norwegian Military Academy from 2003 until 2016, where he led the research project “Character in Military Leaders”. He received his PhD in Psychology in June 2000 from the University of Gothenburg in Sweden. He has previously served as an operational officer in a Norwegian military special unit and graduated from the Norwegian Defence Staff and Command College in 2007. At present, he is Associate Professor of Military Leadership at the Norwegian Defence University College, where he heads the research project “Operational Leadership”.

Tone Cecilie Carlsten

Tone Cecilie Carlsten has worked as a researcher at the Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU) since 2006. Her employment history includes teaching in different countries. She holds a Cand. Polit. (equivalent to a master’s degree) in Educational Science from the University of Oslo and is currently completing a PhD in Educational Science at the same university. She has been a visiting researcher at the University of Illinois and Stanford University. Her research interests include lifelong learning, educational quality and relevance meeting work-life competence needs, and interaction in organizations within processes of change. For over 10 years, she has worked on international comparative studies in higher education for the OECD, IEA, the EU Commission, and carried out basic scientific research. Carlsten has previous experience from the Norwegian Army in the Northern Brigade and has in recent years studied the professional relevance of officer education in the Norwegian ArmedForces. Relevant publications include the NIFU reports, “Assessment of the Professional Relevance of the Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy” (2015), “The Relevance of the Norwegian Military Academy? A Report on the Work on Professional Relevance at the Norwegian Military Academy in Light of Key Changes in the Defense Sector” (2016), as well as the chapter “The Unforeseen and the Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning” in the scientific anthology, Pedagogy for the Unforeseen (2015).

Eric Carlström

Eric Carlström is Professor and PhD in Public Administration. He has explored teambuilding and organizational culture in health and crisis organizations. He has supervised research projects on collaboration and exercises in crisis management financed by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency. One of his recent projects concerns security during public mass-gatherings.

Irmelin Drake

Irmelin Drake, PhD, works as an Associate Professor in Leadership at Kristiania University College, Oslo. Her research interests are focused on leadership in and of organizations, change management, social innovation, gender and diversity. Drake has been involved in numerous research, development and innovation projects related to her research interests and she has co-authored two research-based books on leadership. She received her PhD from the Norwegian School of Economics in 2014, and her dissertation addresses leadership constructions from an internal stakeholder perspective. In 2013, Drake was responsible for coordinating the establishment of a Master’s Degree in Innovation and Leadership at the University College of Southeast Norway, where she also taught several courses, including leadership and innovation, until changing employer in 2018.

Odin Fauskevåg

Odin Fauskevåg, PhD, serves as Associate Professor in the Department of Education and Lifelong Learning at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). His field of research interest is mainly theoretical, specifically concerning how the German philosophical tradition may shed light on different aspects of modern educational practices. A central theme is how thinkers like Hegel, Kant and Gadamer, and concepts such as Bildung and recognition, define a framework for discussing education that differs from the competency-based educational thinking which prevails today.

Kristian Firing

Kristian Firing holds a PhD degree and currently serves as Associate Professor at the Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy and at the Institute of Teacher Education at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Firing has a great passion for teaching. He loves to contribute to the students’ learning process. Beyond the classroom, he likes to bring art-based methods of learning into other contexts, such as military exercises. In his coaching, he tries to practice “the art of meeting”, walking through the learning process together with the students, leaving them with increased self-efficacy. His areas of research interest include leadership development, experience-based learning, art-based learning, reflection, debriefing, coaching, writing, social psychology, mindfulness, sport, amongst others. He is currently involved in research projects examining artistic creativity, art-based methods of learning, theatre laboratory and the role of emotions in learning.

Pål Kristian Fredriksen

Pål Kristian Fredriksen is a major in the Royal Norwegian Air Force. He has a background as an F-16 pilot in the 338 Squadron, and has military experience from international operations in the Balkans and Afghanistan. Fredriksen holds a Master’s Degree in Management from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. At present, he holds the position of Section Commander for Supervision, Exercises and Training at the Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy.

Gila Hammer Furnes

Gila Hammer Furnes is Assistant Professor and Ph.D. Research Fellow at Western Norway University of Applied Sciences. Her work is related to digital samhandling [interaction] in education, teacher education, and samhandling between the areas of research and practice in education. Her PhD project aims to develop empirically-based knowledge about samhandling with regard to research and development projects in educational practice. Specifically, it examines how school researchers and teachers in joint school research and development projects perceive samhandling.

Kjersti Halvorsen

Kjersti Halvorsen is Associate Professor and PhD in Public Administration. She teaches in the Master’s Program in Organizational Leadership at the Western Norway University of Applied Sciences. She has explored the idea of modernization: 1) in the first classical texts of organizational theory; 2) in the political programs of the Scandinavian welfare-state pioneers; and 3) in interviews with the management consultants who introduced New Public Management to Norway. One of her recent projects focuses on suicide amongst patients undergoing treatment at psychiatric hospitals. Halvorsen has been a visiting scholar at SCANCOR Stanford University and the Stockholm School of Economics.

Berit Kristin Haugdal

Berit Kristin Haugdal holds a Cand. Paed. (equivalent to a master’s degree) in Educational Science from the University of Oslo, and is currently Quality Leader at the Norwegian Military Academy (Krigsskolen) in Oslo. Her work is focused on quality and professional development in the education of officers, and studying the similarities between doctrines and curricula in the light of teaching, learning and training students of any kind.

Marius Herberg

Marius Herberg is Lieutenant Colonel in the Royal Norwegian Air Force and a PhD Research Fellow at the Department of Military Leadership and Management, Norwegian Defence University College. The PhD program is located at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim, Department of Psychology. “Competence for the Unforeseen” is the overall theme of his doctoral dissertation. He has operational and administrative experience from various roles and levels within the Norwegian Armed Forces. In addition, he has experience from the Norwegian Ministry of Defence and international service in the Balkans. Herberg has a Master’s Degree of Science in Military Studies from the Norwegian Defence University College. In addition, he holds a cand. mag. degree from Lillehammer University College. Herberg is participating in the research project, “The Unforeseen,” and the research program, “Personnel and Competence,” at the Norwegian Defence University College.

Tormod Heier

Tormod Heier is Lieutenant Colonel in the Norwegian Army and holds a PhD in Political Science from the University of Oslo. Heier is a Senior Faculty Adviser at the Norwegian Defence University College and Docent at the Swedish Defence University College in Stockholm. He has edited several anthologies on Norwegian and European security and defense policy. His latest anthology is Military Exercises: Political Messaging and Strategic Impact, coedited with Beatrice Heuser and Guillaume Lasconjaras (2017).

Jan O. Jacobsen

Jan O. Jacobsen is Associate Professor at the Royal Norwegian Naval Academy in Bergen. He was educated at the University of Bergen as a political scientist and presented his doctoral dissertation about leadership and organization in military organizations in March 1997. He has worked at the Naval Academy since 2001. He has published several articles about different subjects concerning military leadership, such as the meaning of duty, military cohesion and the German Auftragstaktik.

Hitoshi Kawano

Hitoshi Kawano is Professor of Sociology at the Department of Public Policy, and Director of the Center for International Exchange at the National Defense Academy in Yokosuka, Japan. He received his PhD from Northwestern University in 1996. His research interests include military history, the sociology of combat and peacekeeping, mental health, family support, gender mainstreaming and diversity management issues within the defense forces, and civil-military relations in post-Cold War Japan. His publications include “Combat Leadership on Guadalcanal: In Extremis Leadership of the Japanese and American Soldiers in World War II” in Leadership in Extreme Situations, (M. Holenweger et al. eds. 2017).

Tommy Krabberød

Tommy Krabberød, Commander and PhD, graduated from the Royal Norwegian Naval Academy in 1995. He has served on board Oslo Class frigates and has worked as a lecturer on leadership at the Norwegian Naval Academy since 2003. His most recent papers are “Task Uncertainty and Mission Command in a Naval Context” and “Auftragstaktik zur See - An Impossibility?” His main research interest is leadership and organization in a naval context.

Tore Listou

Tore Listou is Associate Professor of Logistics at the Norwegian Defence University College and Adjunct Lecturer at the Swedish Defence University. He holds a PhD in Logistics from Lund University (Sweden); an MSc in Business Administration from the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration (NHH), and an MBE from BI Norwegian School of Management. His research interests are related to defense logistics and humanitarian logistics, focusing on preparedness and responsiveness. He is currently head of the multinational MCDC project Global Integrated Logistics for Rapid Aggregation. Listou has ample experience from teaching and tutoring in logistics at universities in the Nordic countries.

Leif Inge Magnussen

Leif Inge Magnussen (PhD) is engaged in his research interests: learning trajectories, effects of training, leader development, evaluation and decision-making. He currently holds the position of Associate Professor at University of Southeast Norway (from 2011) and Manager at the Center of Emergency Preparedness and Integrated Crisis Management. Furthermore, he is the elected President of the Norwegian Mountain Guides Association. His former positions were at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences and the Norwegian Police Academy.

Raino Malnes

Raino Malnes is Professor of Political Science at the University of Oslo and Adjunct Professor at the Norwegian University Defence College. His main research interests are political philosophy and philosophy of science. Among his books are The Hobbesian Theory of International Conflict, Valuing the Environment, Meningen med samfunnsvitenskap [The Meaning of Social Science], Kunsten å begrunne [The Art of Reasoning], and Politisk filosofi [Political Philosophy]. He is Member of the Norwegian Academy of Science.

Ingrid Nyhus

Ingrid Nyhus has a Master’s Degree in Educational Psychology, and her thesis focused on the treatment of young people for trauma after the Tsunami catastrophe of 2004. In her position as Adviser at the Norwegian Defence College, she has immersed herself in the topic of how supervision can be used and developed in different training situations. In her current position as Project Manager of the Norwegian Seamen’s Church, she supports different organizations in emergency-response preparedness.

Olav Kjellevold Olsen

Olav Kjellevold Olsen has served as a military officer for 29 years and is currently Associate Professor at the Department of Psychosocial Science at the University of Bergen. Olav holds a Master’s Degree in Theology and a PhD in Psychology. He has published works on operational leadership, operational morals, organizational justice, operational training, addiction in the military, sleep deprivation and operational performance, team performance, psychological resilience, and trust in operational leadership.

Ann Christin Rivenes

Ann Christin Rivenes is a psychiatrist and Head of Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Psychiatric Clinic, Haukeland University Hospital. She has long experience in consultant-liaison psychiatry and with crises and emergency management.

Torbjørn Rundmo

Torbjørn Rundmo has a Graduate Degree in Psychology (Cand. Psychol.) from the University of Bergen (1983) and is a chartered Clinical Psychologist by the Norwegian National Board of Health. He has a doctoral degree (Dr. Philos.) from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (1993) and was made honorary doctor (fil.dr. honoris causa) by the Stockholm School of Economics in 2005. Rundmo is Appointed Member of the Academy of the Royal Norwegian Society of Science and Letters (DKNVS). He is Member of the Scientific Boards of Journal of Risk Research (published by Routledge, Taylor & Francis), Safety Science (published by Elsevier), and the International Journal of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability (published by Hindawi). Since 1999, he has been Professor of Community Psychology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. From 1998-1999, he was also Professor of Work and Organizational Psychology at the same university.

Herner Saeverot

Herner Saeverot is Professor of Education, and Research Director for the research group PedLab at Western Norway University in Norway. He is Visiting Professor at NLA University College, Bergen, Norway, and Editor-in-Chief of Nordic Studies in Education. His research interests include the theory and history of education and educational research, the academic field of educational studies, and literature and education. His latest publications include Education and the Limits of Reason: Reading Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, and Nabokov (P. Roberts and H. Saeverot 2018), the article “Indirect Teaching” in The Wiley Blackwells Encyclopedia of Art & Design Education. Volume 1 Philosophy and History of Art Education, (John Baldacchino ed. 2018), and the chapter “Invisible Teaching” in the International Handbook of Philosophy of Education, (Paul Smeyers ed. 2018). At present, Professor Saeverot is Project Manager of the research project “Democratic Preparedness Against Racism and Antisemitism,” funded by the Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training.

Per Øystein Saksvik

Per Øystein Saksvik has been a professor at the Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology since 2001. He received his PhD in 1991 in Occupational Health Psychology from the same institution. He has ten years of experience as a contract researcher. He does research in occupational health and safety, organizational interventions, sickness absenteeism and presenteeism, and organizational change.

Trygve Steiro

Trygve J. Steiro is Associate Professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Institute for Teacher Education. Previously he was employed by the Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy. In addition, he has worked for over ten years in risk and safety at SINTEF and also as a consultant. Steiro co-authored Leadership, Samhandling and Education in Flexible Organizations in 2009, with Professor Glenn Egil Torgersen. He was also an important contributor to the anthology Pedagogy for the Unforeseen (Torgersen ed. 2015).

Marianne Storm

Marianne Storm, Professor, PhD, M.Sc., RN, is currently Norwegian Harkness Fellow (2017-18) in Health Care Policy and Practice at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, USA. She is Professor at the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Stavanger (UiS), Norway. She is part of the UiS Centre for Resilience in Healthcare. Storm has been the principal investigator and co-investigator on several research projects which have received grants from the Norwegian Research Council. Storm’s research interests include quality in healthcare, patient- and user involvement, organizational culture and patient safety, care coordination and transitions of care and e-health. She has developed and conducted complex interventions with health professionals and patients in mental health and elderly care, aimed at improving the quality of care through mechanisms of organizational learning, education and training, and inter-professional collaboration.

Glenn-Egil Torgersen

Glenn-Egil Torgersen is Professor of Education at the Norwegian Defence University College. He is also Professor II in Education at the University of Southeast Norway, Center of Emergency Preparedness and Integrated Crisis Management. He was formerly a senior researcher in the Department of Man, Technology and Organization (MTO) at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE). He holds a PhD in Psychology from NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim) and a Master’s Degree (Cand. Polit.) in Educational Science (University of Oslo). In addition, he is a qualified lecturer (Docent) in Organization and Management, and has teaching qualifications in natural science. Key research interests are pedagogical theory construction and practical implications for learning and training design, specifically aimed at professional education in general and emergency-preparedness organizations in particular, in the context of risk, the unforeseen, cyber threats, inter-professional and cross-organizational samhandling [interaction]. His research work also includes pedagogical and methodological studies in tutoring, leadership and multimedia learning. He is Member of the Academy of the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters, and has been responsible for several research projects and scientific publications and anthologies, including Pedagogikk for det Uforutsette [Pedagogy for the Unforeseen] (2015).

Carl Cato Wadel

Carl Cato Wadel is Associate Professor at the University of Stavanger, Norway. He received the doctoral degree, Dr. Philos., from the University of Bergen in 2007. Research interests include organizational change, leadership, shared leadership, self-leadership, employee interaction and communities of practice. His publications include the following articles: “Interaction in Shared Leadership and Professionalization of Leadership”, “Leadership in an Interaction Perspective”, and “Participatory Work-Along as an Apprentice”.

Tobias Werler

Tobias Werler is Professor of Education at Western Norway University of Applied Sciences (HVL), Bergen campus. His scientific production in recent years has been characterized by empirical and theoretical (and not least, comparative) projects that are associated with the theory of Bildung, Didaktik, policy of education and teacher professionalization. In the area of Didaktik theory, he is especially interested in fundamental issues as they occur in a risk-based democracy.

Siri Wiig

Siri Wiig holds a PhD, MSc, and is a Professor of Quality and Safety in Healthcare Systems at the Faulty of Health Sciences at the University of Stavanger (UiS), Norway. She is part of the research center SHARE - Centre for Resilience in Healthcare, UiS. Key research interests are resilience in healthcare, patient safety, quality improvement, user involvement, human factors, risk regulation, leadership, learning, socio-technical systems, and welfare technology. Wiig has been member of two national public commissions reporting to the Ministry of Health and Care Services (2013-2015) and the Ministry of Defence (2015-2016). Wiig has been involved in several national and international research projects as project manager, principal investigator and researcher. Currently she is Project Manager for the SAFE-LEAD Primary Care Study (2016-2021), focusing on leading quality and safety in primary care, funded by the Research Council of Norway.

Cover Image
September 20, 2018


Details about the available publication format: PDF


Details about the available publication format: EPUB


Details about the available publication format: HTML


Details about the available publication format: XML